tocacco plant Native American Tobaccoo flower, leaves, and buds

tocacco Tobacco is an annual or bi-annual growing 1-3 meters tall with large sticky leaves that contain nicotine. Native to the Americas, tobacco has a long history of use as a shamanic inebriant and stimulant. It is extremely popular and well-known for its addictive potential.

tocacco nicotina Nicotiana tabacum

tocacco Nicotiana rustica leaves. Nicotiana rustica leaves have a nicotine content as high as 9%, whereas Nicotiana tabacum (common tobacco) leaves contain about 1 to 3%

tocacco cigar A cigar is a tightly rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco which is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the mouth. Cigar tobacco is grown in significant quantities in Brazil, Cameroon, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Indonesia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Sumatra, Philippines, and the Eastern United States.

tocacco Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as an organic pesticide, and in the form of nicotine tartrate it is used in some medicines. In consumption it may be in the form of cigarettes smoking, snuffing, chewing, dipping tobacco, or snus.

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Industry Self-Regulation as a Defense against Government Action

Industries under threat often claim that self-regulation is sufficient and that they deserve the public’s and government’s trust. Then they launch highly publicized pledges for change. Beginning with the “Frank Statement” made by tobacco companies in 1954 in which companies pledged, among other things, to “cooperate closely with those whose task it is to safeguard the public health,” the industry did its best to fight calls for strict regulation. A modern-day version is the Philip Morris television campaign focused on preventing youth from smoking. An outside evaluation found that it did no such thing and in fact might affect children in ways that would make them more likely to smoke. Nonindustry antismoking efforts, in comparison, have been successful with both youth and adult smokers.
The food industry is in full-scale pursuit of self-regulatory authority. The American Beverage Association,
in association with the Alliance for a Healthier Generation, announced that it would reduce sales of traditional carbonated soft drinks in schools. Left untouched was an array of beverages whose sales are increasing, compared with the traditional carbonated beverages whose sales are declining. Another example is the announcement by a coalition of major food companies and the Council of Better Business Bureaus that their child-marketing practices would change.
The impact of these pledges on children’s dietary practices has not been established objectively, but to the extent the tobacco experience applies, there is reason to be on high alert. The child market for the food companies is enormous. American children, counting only those aged five to fourteen, spend $20 billion annually and influence the spending of $200 billion to $500 billion more. Some ad agencies specialize in children’s television marketing and others in product placements in children’s media, handbooks and conferences on child marketing, and prizes for the best marketing campaigns. In a book on industry self-regulation, Cashore, Auld, and Newsom note cases in which industry self-regulation has had beneficial effects, typically when an endangered resource is at stake and government inaction is a threat because rogue players threaten the industry’s survival. Two examples are marine fisheries and forests. When industries are under public relations threats and they worry that the government will be too
active, self-regulation is imposed in a different context. Cashore and colleagues underscore the importance of objective evaluation, not funded or conducted by industry, to establish the impact of pledges.

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