In addition to demographic and smoking related information, relevant questions measuring awareness of tobacco advertising and promotional activities were included. At the beginning of “advertising” section of the survey the respondents were asked about the overall salience of pro-smoking cues: “In the last 6 months, how often have you noticed things that are designed to encourage smoking or
which make you think about smoking?” The smokers were then prompted to recall if they had noticed advertisements in a range of specific locations or media, including 5 common to all countries: on TV, radio, posters/billboards, newspapers and in stores.
The measures used from this were either a total of the 5 where advertising was seen,
or a binary, seen-any variable. Noticing at point of sale was also measured in all
countries. There were also questions about awareness of sports and arts sponsorships
(with a combined measure for noticing either); and an index created from responses to
whether a respondent reported noticing any of the following four types of promotion:
free samples of cigarettes, gifts/discounts, branded clothing or competition. Two
overall indices of awareness across all three types of marketing were computed: ‘total
noticing advertising, sponsorship and promotion in any channel,’ and ‘total number of
channels of noticing’. In addition, smokers were asked to indicate whether they agree
with the following statement: “Tobacco companies should be allowed to advertise and
promote cigarettes as they please.” The survey questions were carefully translated and
back translated and checked to ensure conceptual identity of questions across
The analyses were conducted on weighted data using SPSS 14.0 for Windows.
Differences between samples were assessed using Pearson chi-square tests and
logistic regression models (for categorical variables) and Kruskal-Wallis Test for
count variables. An alpha level of p<0.05 was used for all statistical tests.