tocacco plant Native American Tobaccoo flower, leaves, and buds

tocacco Tobacco is an annual or bi-annual growing 1-3 meters tall with large sticky leaves that contain nicotine. Native to the Americas, tobacco has a long history of use as a shamanic inebriant and stimulant. It is extremely popular and well-known for its addictive potential.

tocacco nicotina Nicotiana tabacum

tocacco Nicotiana rustica leaves. Nicotiana rustica leaves have a nicotine content as high as 9%, whereas Nicotiana tabacum (common tobacco) leaves contain about 1 to 3%

tocacco cigar A cigar is a tightly rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco which is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the mouth. Cigar tobacco is grown in significant quantities in Brazil, Cameroon, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Indonesia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Sumatra, Philippines, and the Eastern United States.

tocacco Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as an organic pesticide, and in the form of nicotine tartrate it is used in some medicines. In consumption it may be in the form of cheap cigarettes smoking, snuffing, chewing, dipping tobacco, or snus.

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Smoking Is Independent Risk Factor for Cervical Cancer

New research confirms that smoking is an independent risk factor for cervical cancer in women with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types, researchers stated here at the 25th International Papillomavirus (IPV) Conference.

“We must emphasise cervical cancer prevention among women exposed to tobacco smoke,” said Aline Simen-Kapeau, PhD, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland, on May 12.

The researchers noted that the strong correlation between smoking and exposure to oncogenic HPV types makes determining the independent role of smoking in cervical carcinogenesis difficult. This study was designed to determine that role.

Data from 5 large Nordic country serum banks with samples from >1 million people were correlated to national cancer registries (1973-2003).

The researchers retrieved serum samples from 588 women who developed invasive cervical cancer and 2,861 matched control subjects.

The serum samples were analysed for cotinine and antibodies to oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18, herpes simplex virus type 2, and Chlamydia trachomatis.

The risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix was found to be associated with smoking among heavy smokers in the HPV16-/HPV18-seropositivegroup (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-4.3).

After adjustment for HPV16/18 antibodies, a similar risk of cervical cancer was found among heavy smokers (OR = 3.2; 95% CI, 2.6-4.0).

The risk increased with older age at diagnosis and with increasing cotinine levels.

“This study confirms that smoking is an independent risk factor for cervical cancer in women infected with oncogenic HPVs,” the researchers concluded.

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