tocacco plant Native American Tobaccoo flower, leaves, and buds

tocacco Tobacco is an annual or bi-annual growing 1-3 meters tall with large sticky leaves that contain nicotine. Native to the Americas, tobacco has a long history of use as a shamanic inebriant and stimulant. It is extremely popular and well-known for its addictive potential.

tocacco nicotina Nicotiana tabacum

tocacco Nicotiana rustica leaves. Nicotiana rustica leaves have a nicotine content as high as 9%, whereas Nicotiana tabacum (common tobacco) leaves contain about 1 to 3%

tocacco cigar A cigar is a tightly rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco which is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the mouth. Cigar tobacco is grown in significant quantities in Brazil, Cameroon, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Indonesia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Sumatra, Philippines, and the Eastern United States.

tocacco Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as an organic pesticide, and in the form of nicotine tartrate it is used in some medicines. In consumption it may be in the form of cheap cigarettes smoking, snuffing, chewing, dipping tobacco, or snus.

tocacco
Tobacco-Facts ads

US Report: Smoking Bans Protect Nonsmokers’ Hearts

WASHINGTON — A major U.S. report confirms what health officials long have believed: Bans on smoking in restaurants, bars and other gathering spots reduce the risk of heart attacks among nonsmokers.

“If you have heart disease, you really need to stay away from secondhand smoke. It’s an immediate threat to your life,” declared Dr. Neal Benowitz of the University of California, San Francisco, who co-wrote Thursday’s report from the prestigious Institute of Medicine.

More than 126 million nonsmoking people in the U.S. are regularly exposed to someone else’s tobacco smoke. The surgeon general in 2006 cited “overwhelming scientific evidence” that tens of thousands die each year as a result, from heart disease, lung cancer and a list of other illnesses.

Yet smoking bans have remained a hard sell, as lawmakers and business owners debate whether such prohibitions are worth the anger of smoking customers or employees.

Thursday’s hard-hitting report promises to influence that debate here and abroad.

“The evidence is clear,” said Dr. Thomas Frieden, head of the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which requested the study. “Smoke-free laws don’t hurt business … but they prevent heart attacks in nonsmokers.”

Among the report’s conclusions: While heavier exposure to secondhand smoke is worse, there is no safe level. It also cited “compelling” if circumstantial evidence that even less than an hour’s exposure might be enough to push someone already at risk of a heart attack over the edge.

That is because within minutes, the smoke’s pollution-like small particles and other substances can start constricting blood vessels and increasing blood’s propensity to clot — key heart attack factors. Yet many people don’t know they have heart disease until their first heart attack, making it important for everyone to avoid secondhand smoke, Benowitz said.

“Even if you think you’re perfectly healthy, secondhand smoke could be a potential threat to you,” he said.

Many of the IOM committee members initially were skeptical they’d find much benefit from the bans, said statistician Stephen Feinberg of Carnegie Mellon University. He proclaimed himself “the resident skeptic” who changed his mind. “There was a clear and consistent effect of smoking bans,” he said.

Since New York led the way in 2003, 21 states plus the federal enclave of Washington now have what the CDC calls comprehensive laws banning smoking in both public and private workplaces, restaurants and bars — with no exception for ventilated smoking areas. Some other states have less restrictive laws.

That means 41 percent of people in the U.S. are as protected in public from secondhand smoke as possible, Frieden said. The report found just 5 percent of the world’s population was covered by comprehensive smoke-free laws.

While the public mostly connects smoking with lung cancer, heart disease is a more immediate consequence. About a third of all heart attacks in the U.S. are related to smoking, Frieden said.

How much do bans help? That depends on how existing bans were studied and how much secondhand smoke exposure different populations have. Some heavily exposed nonsmokers have the same risk of heart damage as people who smoke up to nine cigarettes a day, said Dr. Lynn Goldman, an environmental health specialist at Johns Hopkins University who led the Institute of Medicine committee.

Her team reviewed 11 key studies of smoking bans in parts of the U.S., Canada, Italy and Scotland. Those studies found drops in the number of heart attacks that ranged from 6 percent to 47 percent.

Some of the benefit may be to smokers who at least cut back because of public or workplace smoking bans, and may even quit at home, too. But two studies — one in Monroe, Indiana, and another in Scotland — as well as a 52-country study of secondhand smoke’s heart effects focused particularly on nonsmokers, to reassure that the bans do help them, Goldman said.

The institute is part of the National Academies, an independent organization chartered by Congress to advise the government on scientific matters.


Share and Enjoy:
  • Digg
  • del.icio.us
  • Facebook
  • Technorati
  • StumbleUpon
  • Google Bookmarks
  • MySpace
  • MyShare
  • Reddit
  • RSS
  • Twitter
  • Simpy
  • Sphinn
  • Yahoo! Buzz
  • Blogosphere News
  • Mixx

Related posts:

  1. Smoking bans are boosting public health FORT WORTH — Ryan Johnson enjoys going to restaurants more...
  2. Alabama Voices: Smoking bans save lives Most Americans fail to appreciate the impact of smoking on...
  3. More Evidence Is Needed to Decide Whether Smoking Bans Are Good Just kidding. The report, which an Institute of Medicine committee...
  4. Study shows smoking bans help Stuttgart, Ark. - It’s a highly-debated topic, but one year...
  5. Study: Smoking bans do not causes job loss Clean indoor air policies — bans on smoking — do...
  6. Cigarette smoke’s role in the death of transplanted hearts A study conducted at the University of Maryland School of...
  7. Smoking Bans Don’t Hurt Bars, Casinos An Indiana University review of state and local smoking bans...
  8. Smoking ban benefits come swiftly Research is backing up what health professionals have long thought...

Leave a Reply

 

 

 

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>

*
To prove you're a person (not a spam script), type the security word shown in the picture. Click on the picture to hear an audio file of the word.
Click to hear an audio file of the anti-spam word