tocacco plant Native American Tobaccoo flower, leaves, and buds

tocacco Tobacco is an annual or bi-annual growing 1-3 meters tall with large sticky leaves that contain nicotine. Native to the Americas, tobacco has a long history of use as a shamanic inebriant and stimulant. It is extremely popular and well-known for its addictive potential.

tocacco nicotina Nicotiana tabacum

tocacco Nicotiana rustica leaves. Nicotiana rustica leaves have a nicotine content as high as 9%, whereas Nicotiana tabacum (common tobacco) leaves contain about 1 to 3%

tocacco cigar A cigar is a tightly rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco which is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the mouth. Cigar tobacco is grown in significant quantities in Brazil, Cameroon, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Indonesia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Sumatra, Philippines, and the Eastern United States.

tocacco Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as an organic pesticide, and in the form of nicotine tartrate it is used in some medicines. In consumption it may be in the form of cigarettes smoking, snuffing, chewing, dipping tobacco, or snus.

tocacco Cigarettes are smoking products consumed by people and made out of cut tobacco leaves. Cigars are typically composed completely of whole-leaf tobacco. A cigarette has smaller size, composed of processed leaf, and white paper wrapping. The term cigarette refers to a tobacco cigarette too but it can apply to similar devices containing other herbs, such as cannabis.
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Depression and Smoking in the U.S

* Adults aged 20 and over with depression were more likely to be cigarette smokers than those without depression.
* Women with depression had smoking rates similar to men with depression, while women without depression smoked less than men.
* The percentage of adults who were smokers increased as depression severity increased.
* Among adult smokers, those with depression smoked more heavily than those without depression. They were more likely to smoke their first cigarette within 5 minutes of awakening and to smoke more than one pack of cigarettes per day.
* Adults with depression were less likely to quit smoking than those without depression.

Depression is a chronic disease that often results in limitations in work, family, and social life. Persons with depression have higher rates of cardiovascular disease and diabetes and more risk behaviors for these diseases, such as smoking, poor diet, or lack of exercise, than persons without depression.

Since 1964, when the Surgeon General’s first Report on Smoking and Health was released, cigarette smoking among adults in the United States has been reduced by one-half. However, 21% of the adult population still smokes. Better understanding the characteristics of adults who continue to smoke and the relationship between smoking and depression may lead to improved tobacco cessation interventions

Adults with depression were more likely to be current cigarette smokers than those without depression.

In every sex-age group, adults with depression were more likely to smoke than those without depression.

Over one-half of men with depression aged 40-54 were current smokers compared with 26% of men without depression of the same age.

Among women aged 40-54, of those with depression, 43% were smokers compared with 22% of those without depression.

Among adults with depression, men and women had similar rates of smoking, whereas among adults without depression, men were more likely to be smokers than women.

The percentage of adults who were current smokers increased as depression severity increased.

Adults with even mild depressive symptoms were more likely to smoke than adults with no depressive symptoms.

Among adults with moderate or severe depressive symptoms, women and men had similar high rates of smoking ranging from 39% to 48%.

More than one-quarter of men with mild or no depressive symptoms smoked, while less than one-fifth of women with mild or no depressive symptoms did so.

Adult smokers with depression were more likely to be heavy smokers than adult smokers without depression.

Slightly more than one-half of adult smokers with depression smoked their first cigarette of the day within 5 minutes of waking up, while 30% of smokers without depression smoked their first cigarette within 5 minutes of awakening.

Twenty-eight percent of adult smokers with depression smoked more than a pack of cigarettes per day, which was almost twice the rate for adult smokers without depression.

Adults with depression were more likely to have ever smoked than those without depression. Among ever smokers, adults with depression were less likely to have quit smoking than those without depression.

Over 60% of adults with depression had smoked at some point in their lives (ever smokers), and the rate was similar across age groups. Among adults without depression, the proportion who were ever smokers ranged from 43% among those aged 20-39 to 53% among persons aged 55 and over.

In every age group, ever smokers with depression were less likely to have quit smoking than ever smokers without depression.

The percentage of ever smokers who no longer smoke increased with age both among persons with depression and persons without depression.

Among ever smokers aged 20-39 with depression, 17% had quit smoking, whereas 36% of persons in this age group without depression had quit smoking. Among ever smokers aged 55 and over with depression, 57% had quit smoking while almost 75% of persons in this age group without depression had quit.

About 7% of adults aged 20 and over had depression in 2005-2008, based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Persons with depression were more likely to be current smokers than persons without depression. Almost one-half of adults under age 55 with current depression were current smokers, while less than one-quarter of people in this age group without depression were smokers.

The proportion of adults who were current smokers tended to increase with an increase in depression severity. Even persons with mild depressive symptoms below the threshold for the diagnosis of depression were more likely to be smokers than people with no depressive symptoms.

Adults with depression were more likely to smoke over a pack a day and smoke their first cigarette within 5 minutes of waking up than were adults without depression. Both of these are indicators of heavy smoking. Heavy smoking is highly correlated with inability to quit.

Those with depression had a higher rate of smoking initiation (ever smoking) as well as a lower quit rate. They were also heavier smokers than persons without depression. Individuals with other mental illnesses have similar smoking patterns. Studies have shown that persons with depression and other mental illnesses smoke a disproportionate share of all the cigarettes consumed in the United States.

The few studies that have examined ability to quit smoking in persons with depression have shown that with intensive treatment, persons with depression can quit smoking and remain abstinent. These intensive cessation services often use treatments that are also used for depression, including cognitive-behavioral therapy or antidepressant medications. Adults with depression and other mental illnesses are an important subgroup to target for tobacco cessation programs.

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