tocacco plant Native American Tobaccoo flower, leaves, and buds

tocacco Tobacco is an annual or bi-annual growing 1-3 meters tall with large sticky leaves that contain nicotine. Native to the Americas, tobacco has a long history of use as a shamanic inebriant and stimulant. It is extremely popular and well-known for its addictive potential.

tocacco nicotina Nicotiana tabacum

tocacco Nicotiana rustica leaves. Nicotiana rustica leaves have a nicotine content as high as 9%, whereas Nicotiana tabacum (common tobacco) leaves contain about 1 to 3%

tocacco cigar A cigar is a tightly rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco which is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the mouth. Cigar tobacco is grown in significant quantities in Brazil, Cameroon, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Indonesia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Sumatra, Philippines, and the Eastern United States.

tocacco Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as an organic pesticide, and in the form of nicotine tartrate it is used in some medicines. In consumption it may be in the form of cigarettes smoking, snuffing, chewing, dipping tobacco, or snus.

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State Cigarette Excise Taxes

Increasing the price of cigarettes can reduce smoking substantially by discouraging initiation among youths and young adults, prompting quit attempts, and reducing average cigarette consumption among those who continue to smoke. Increasing cigarette excise taxes is one of the most effective tobacco control policies because it directly increases cigarette prices, thereby reducing cigarette use and smoking-related death and disease. All states and the District of Columbia (DC) impose an excise tax on cigarettes. Because many states increased their cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of these tax increases. For this report, CDC reviewed data contained in a legislative database to identify cigarette excise tax legislation that was enacted during 2009 by the 50 states and DC. During that period, 15 states (including DC), increased their state excise tax on cigarettes, increasing the national mean from $1.18 per pack in 2008 to $1.34 per pack in 2009. However, none of the 15 states dedicated any of the new excise tax revenue by statute to tobacco control. Additionally, for the first time, two states (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had excise tax rates of at least $3.00 per pack. Additional increases in cigarette excise taxes, and dedication of all resulting revenues to tobacco control and prevention programs at levels recommended by CDC, could result in further reductions in smoking and associated morbidity and mortality.

Cigarettes and other tobacco products are taxed by federal, state, and local governments in various ways, including excise taxes, which typically are levied per pack of 20 cigarettes. State cigarette excise tax rates are set by legislation, are contained in state statutes, and usually are collected before the point of sale (i.e., from manufacturers, wholesalers, or distributors), as denoted by a tax stamp. Forty-four states and DC also levy state sales taxes on the retail sale of cigarettes.

State cigarette excise tax data for this report were obtained from CDC’s State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) system database, which contains tobacco-related epidemiologic and economic data and information on state tobacco-related legislation. Data are collected quarterly from an online legal research database of state laws, analyzed, coded, and transferred into the STATE system. The STATE system contains information on state laws on excise taxes for cigarettes in effect since the fourth quarter of 1995.

All states and DC impose an excise tax on cigarettes. During 2009, cigarette excise tax increases were enacted and took cigarettes taxeffect in 15 states: Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, DC, Florida, Hawaii, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin. No state decreased its excise tax. The increases ranged from $0.10 per pack in North Carolina to $1.00 per pack in Connecticut, Florida, and Rhode Island. For states with an excise tax increase in 2009, the mean increase was $0.52 per pack. The increases resulted in Connecticut and Rhode Island becoming the first two states with a cigarette excise tax of at least $3.00 per pack. Additionally, Hawaii included a provision in the state law that will increase the state cigarette excise tax by $0.20 per year in July 2010 and 2011, bringing the state tax to $3.00 per pack.

The national mean cigarette excise tax among all states increased from $1.18 per pack in 2008 to $1.34 per pack in 2009. South Carolina had the lowest state cigarette excise tax in the United States, at $0.07 per pack, and Rhode Island had the highest, at $3.46 per pack. Among major tobacco-growing states (Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia), the mean state cigarette excise tax was $0.40 per pack on December 31, 2009, an increase from $0.28 in 2008. For all other states, including DC, the mean cigarette excise tax was $1.46 per pack on December 31, 2009, an increase from $1.30 in 2008.

California, Missouri, North Dakota, and South Carolina remain the only states that have not increased their state cigarette excise tax in the past decade. South Carolina’s cigarette excise tax of $0.07 per pack has not increased since 1977. Missouri and North Dakota have not raised the state cigarette excise tax ($0.17 and $0.44 per pack, respectively) since 1993, and California has not raised its $0.87 per pack tax since 1998.

This report is based, in part, on contributions by M Engstrom, MS, L Zhang, PhD, and T Pechacek, PhD, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC; and R Patrick JD, SS Edison, JD, and L Lineberger, MayaTech Corporation, Silver Spring, Maryland.

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