tocacco plant Native American Tobaccoo flower, leaves, and buds

tocacco Tobacco is an annual or bi-annual growing 1-3 meters tall with large sticky leaves that contain nicotine. Native to the Americas, tobacco has a long history of use as a shamanic inebriant and stimulant. It is extremely popular and well-known for its addictive potential.

tocacco nicotina Nicotiana tabacum

tocacco Nicotiana rustica leaves. Nicotiana rustica leaves have a nicotine content as high as 9%, whereas Nicotiana tabacum (common tobacco) leaves contain about 1 to 3%

tocacco cigar A cigar is a tightly rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco which is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the mouth. Cigar tobacco is grown in significant quantities in Brazil, Cameroon, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Indonesia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Sumatra, Philippines, and the Eastern United States.

tocacco Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as an organic pesticide, and in the form of nicotine tartrate it is used in some medicines. In consumption it may be in the form of cigarettes smoking, snuffing, chewing, dipping tobacco, or snus.

tocacco Cigarettes are smoking products consumed by people and made out of cut tobacco leaves. Cigars are typically composed completely of whole-leaf tobacco. A cigarette has smaller size, composed of processed leaf, and white paper wrapping. The term cigarette refers to a tobacco cigarette too but it can apply to similar devices containing other herbs, such as cannabis.
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Smoking Restrictions in Large-Hub Airports

Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes death and disease in both nonsmoking adults and children, including cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. SHS exposure causes an estimated 46,000 heart disease deaths and 3,400 lung cancer deaths among U.S. nonsmoking adults annually. Adopting policies that completely eliminate smoking in all indoor areas is the only effective way to eliminate involuntary SHS exposure. In 2009, an estimated 696 million aircraft passenger boardings occurred in the United States. A 2002 survey of airport smoking policies found that 42% of 31 large-hub U.S. airports had policies requiring all indoor areas to be smoke-free. To update that finding, CDC analyzed the smoking policies of airports categorized as large-hub in 2010. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, although 22 (76%) of the 29 large-hub airports surveyed were smoke-free indoors, seven airports permitted smoking in certain indoor locations, including three of the five busiest airports. Although a majority of airports reported having specifically designated smoking areas outdoors in 2010 (79%) and/or prohibiting smoking within a minimum distance of entryways (69%), no airport completely prohibited smoking on all airport property. Smoke-free policies at the state, local, or airport authority level are needed for all airports to protect air travelers and workers at airports from SHS.

Large-hub airports are defined by the Federal Aviation Administration as airports that accounted for ≥1% of total passenger boardings in the United States during the previous year. Combined, the 29 airports categorized as large-hub in 2010 accounted for approximately 70% of total passenger boardings in the United States in 2009.

Smoking policies in airports can be established by state statute; county or city ordinance; or airport/transit authority rule, regulation, or policy. An airport was defined as smoke-free indoors when smoking by anyone was prohibited at all times, in all indoor areas of the airport. To determine the smoking policies in place at the 29 large-hub airports, information was collected during July-September 2010. CDC first reviewed and analyzed state and local laws from databases of current statutes and ordinances and airport authority rules and regulations available on Internet sites. Results were then compared with a list of airport smoking policies maintained by the Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation and with other Internet resources, including policy information on airport websites. Finally, airport personnel were contacted to resolve any inconsistencies between CDC’s findings and other reports and to collect additional information on smoking policies. These results were compared with information on smoking policies at the 31 airports categorized as large-hub in 2002.

The CDC analysis included identifying 1) whether smoking was allowed or prohibited in all indoor areas; 2) where smoking (if allowed) was permitted indoors, including the type and number of locations; 3) whether outdoor smoking areas were designated; 4) whether smoking was prohibited within a minimum distance of airport entrances; and 5) how smoking policies were communicated to aircraft passengers and airport workers and visitors (i.e., written policies, signage, or announcements on the public address system).

Twenty-two (76%) of the 29 large-hub airports were smoke-free indoors in 2010, compared with 13 (42%) of 31 large-hub airports in 2002. Among the seven large-hub airports that allowed smoking indoors in 2010, three were ranked among the top five in passenger boardings: Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International, Dallas/Fort Worth International, and Denver International.

None of the 29 large-hub airports completely prohibited smoking outdoors on airport property. A larger percentage (79%) of airports reported having specifically designated outdoor smoking areas in 2010 than in 2002 (68%). The percentage of airports with policies prohibiting smoking within a minimum distance of airport entrances (range: 10-30 feet) also was greater in 2010 (69%) than in 2002 (61%). In 2010, airports that permitted smoking indoors were less likely than those that did not to have designated outdoor smoking areas (71% versus 82%) or minimum distance requirements outdoors (29% versus 82%). A similar pattern was observed in 2002.

All 29 large-hub airports reported posting signage to communicate their smoking policy; 72% of these airports also reported that announcements related to the smoking policy were made over the airport’s public address system. Some large-hub airports reported that they had made such announcements previously but had discontinued them because the smoking policy was well-known.

TABLE 1. Indoor smoke-free status of large-hub airports (N = 29), reported number of indoor smoking areas, and locations where smoking is permitted — United States, 2010
Rank* Airport City, state Smoke-free indoors Reported no. of smoking areas Locations where smoking is permitted
1 Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Atlanta, Georgia No 12 Public smoking rooms; bars
2 Chicago O’Hare International Chicago, Illinois Yes
3 Los Angeles International Los Angeles, California Yes
4 Dallas/Fort Worth International Fort Worth, Texas No 2 Private airline clubs
5 Denver International Denver, Colorado No 4 Bars
6 John F. Kennedy International New York, New York Yes
7 McCarran International Las Vegas, Nevada No 1 Bar
8 George Bush Intercontinental/Houston Houston, Texas Yes
9 Phoenix Sky Harbor International Phoenix, Arizona Yes
10 San Francisco International San Francisco, California Yes
11 Charlotte/Douglas International Charlotte, North Carolina No 4 Nonpublic, leased tenant space
12 Newark Liberty International Newark, New Jersey Yes
13 Orlando International Orlando, Florida Yes
14 Miami International Miami, Florida Yes
15 Minneapolis-St Paul International Minneapolis, Minnesota Yes
16 Seattle-Tacoma International Seattle, Washington Yes
17 Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Detroit, Michigan Yes
18 Philadelphia International Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Yes
19 General Edward Lawrence Logan International Boston, Massachusetts Yes
20 Washington Dulles International Dulles, Virginia No 4 Public smoking rooms
21 La Guardia New York, New York Yes
22 Baltimore/Washington Intl. Thurgood Marshall Glen Burnie, Maryland Yes
23 Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Fort Lauderdale, Florida Yes
24 Salt Lake City International Salt Lake City, Utah No 5 Public smoking rooms
25 Honolulu International Honolulu, Hawaii Yes
26 Ronald Reagan Washington National Arlington, Virginia Yes
27 San Diego International San Diego, California Yes
28 Tampa International Tampa, Florida Yes
29 Chicago Midway International Chicago, Illinois Yes
* Ranked by total number of passenger boardings in 2009 (range: 42.3 million-8.3 million), according to the Federal Aviation Administration.

Reported by
A Cordero, MPA, M Tynan, S Babb, MPH, G Promoff, MA, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC.

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