About one in 20 middle and high scholars who use the “chewing gum”, snuff, or other smokeless tobacco usually add it to their cigarette habit, the study showed resistance to the idea of a less harmful smoking replacement.
Classroom survey indicated 5.6% from 6th to 12th grade are currently using any of smokeless tobacco products, of which 72% also smoked, Israel T. Agaku, DMD, MPH, of the Harvard School of Public Health Center for the Global Fight Tobacco Control in Boston, and colleagues found.
Peer pressure came in as the biggest impact, and almost 10 times more likely to use smokeless tobacco, if a close friend did, the researchers reported in the September issue of Pediatrics.
“These results are generally at odds with the last positions in favor of new smokeless tobacco products as a means of harm reduction,” they write.
New forms of smokeless tobacco as snus and soluble tobacco with a reduced content of carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamine than conventional cigarettes or chewing tobacco, snuff, or drop, and thus increasingly promoted as an alternative to smoking young , the group explained.
Switching can reduce an individual’s risk, but evidence that adolescents and teenagers do not give up one form of tobacco when they start another, which does not reduce their risk, and may increase it in the group have Agaku.
Although cigarettes decreased over the last decade, smokeless tobacco continues to be at the same level of about 6%, said co-author Constantine I. Vardavas, MD, MPH, PhD, and the Center for Global Tobacco Control.
“Clinicians, when they engage teenagers patient must not only ask,” Do you smoke cigarettes? But “Do you use any form of tobacco, including smokeless?” He told MedPage today. “It is important that the physician to convey the message that all tobacco products are harmful.”
The team analyzed questionnaire responses from 18,866 U.S. students in sixth to 12th grade classes in 178 schools in the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey.
In the previous 30 days, 5% of the total students reported using chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip, 1.9% for snus, 0.3%, using soluble tobacco.
Factors associated with smokeless tobacco use were:
• older age, with a predominance of 2.4% between the ages of 9 to 11, which rose to 11% at age 18 years and older
• Male gender, with a predominance of 10% versus 3% for girls
• Non-Hispanic white or Native American ethnicity, with a predominance of 6.8% and 7.6%, respectively, compared with 2.5% among non-Hispanic black
In the adjusted analysis, one or a few close friends who used smokeless tobacco is 9.56 times higher than the predicted probability that a student will use it themselves.
The next firm was current use of tobacco or some “new tobacco products” and then smokeless tobacco one of their family members at home.
Cigarette smoking by peers or in the house did not seem to affect smokeless tobacco use among middle and high school students.
The only significant protective factor was endorsing that all tobacco products are harmful.
Among the respondents who said they remembered seeing the warning labels on packages, there was actually a connection with a higher probability of use, which “speaks of the need for more effective health warnings on smokeless tobacco products,” the group wrote Agaku.
Almost all smokeless tobacco said it would be easy to get the products, if they wanted. They are the most common way of getting smokeless tobacco had to get it from someone else or buy it, as a rule, from a retail store.
Many of the teens and teens said they intended to quit all tobacco use, but the proportion was lower among those who have used both traditional and new smokeless tobacco products compared with only new forms.
The researchers warn that a memory error may have led to an underestimation of tobacco use and that the cross-sectional study design meant no cause-and-effect relationship could be made.